The Faculty of Pharmacy

At the Faculty of Pharmacy of the Bijeljina University lectures are taking place at the study programme of an integrated academic pharmacy studies. The study programme lasts for five years and is made as "a unique study programme that includes the first and the second cycle of studies". It is a study programme that meets the standards that are most important for performing almost all kinds of jobs in the pharmaceutical industry. Therefore, it is pointed out that students who have finished the studies will be able to enrol directly into PhD studies, which will be organized by this University after reaching certain standards for this degree of education (the third cycle of studies).

Botany – content of practice

Content of the practical classes in Botany

The goal of practical classes in Botany is to introduce students to basic knowledge of morphology, anatomy and physiology of plants that are important for pharmacy.

During practical classes, students learn about the basics of plant anatomy using a microscope and by observing permanent preparations they learn to recognize different plant tissues, organs as well as specificity of their structure.

Within the permanent preparations, microscopic analysis of roots, trees and leaves was carried out.

The second part of the practical classes involves acquainting with the basic concepts of morphology and plant systematics necessary for the identification of below-ground and above-ground plant organs as well as the determination of plant species.

In this part of practical classes, preparing herbarium and using botanical literature enable students to identify the plants predicted by the plan.

Pharmacognosy

In practical classes in Pharmacognosy, students acquire knowledge and skills related to the identification of herbal drugs, its biological source and recognize the morphological and anatomical characteristics of the drugs, gain knowledge about the ability to use herbal drugs, and get to know the method of testing drug quality. All these skills and knowledge were acquired through the performance of the following practices:

  1. Identification of herbal drugs by carrying out a macroscopic (organoleptic) drug analysis, based on testing by means of senses: appearance, size, consistency, colour, odour and taste of the drug.
  2. Microscopic and microchemical analysis of the drugs, based on the observation of a permanent preparation of plant tissue or powder of drugs in general reactivity under the microscope and the determination of plant drugs based on the anatomy of plant tissue and the localization of characteristic or active ingredients.
  3. Drug testing according to appropriate standards given in pharmacopoeias and other regulations, such as identification, examination of the general quality of herbal drugs and testing of specific drug quality (drug values).
Drug analytics

Drug analytics 1 as a subject, held in the 7th semester of integrated academic pharmacy studies and Drug analytics 2, held in the 8th semester, include a 30 hour fund of theoretical and 15 hour of practical lessons. During the theoretical lessons, students are introduced to the examination of physical, chemical, biological and pharmaceutical-technological properties of drugs by using the methods of qualitative and quantitative analysis in order to evaluate their quality. During the practical lessons, students practice quantitative analysis of pharmaceutical forms using volumetric and spectroscopic methods. Quality control is one of the procedures that each drug has to pass and whose requirements have to be fulfilled before a marketing authorization is granted, and the goal of doing practical lessons from Drug analytics is precisely that students are familiar with the meaning and procedure of performing quality control of pharmaceutical forms present on the market.

The content of the practical classes in Pharmacognosy 2

Permanent preparations of cross-sectional herbal drugs.

The content of the exercise from Pharmaceutical chemistry 2

Pharmaceutical chemistry 2 practical classes are experimental and methods of qualitative analysis are carried out within them, whereby the student's task is to identify the substance, i.e. to prove from which parts (atoms, molecules, ions) the test substance consists of. In order to determine the qualitative composition of the pharmaceutical-chemical substances, their chemical and physical properties are used.

1 For the purpose of determining the molecular structure of pharmaceutical substances, spectroscopic methods, which are based on the absorption of radiation, are the most frequently used. Thus, on the practical lessons the following was carried out:

  • v spectrophotometric determination (diazepam, ibuprofen, ketoconosol, teobromine, diclofenac, nicotinamide ...)
  • v IR and NMR identification (interpretation of spectra)

2 Determining the melting point of the synthesized substances represents a simple method on the basis of which the students identified the identity of the substances and checked the degree of purity.

3 Chemical reactions of the identification of pharmaceutical-chemical substances

  • Evidence reactions are based on the chemical reaction of the test substance with the reagent (substance of the known composition), where compounds of characteristic features are formed. Characteristic features, based on which the presence of a substance is determined, can be: colour change (appearance or fading of colour), sludge buildup, gas extraction with characteristic odour, colour or some other properties. Carrying out evidence reactions is very simple and interesting for students.

4 Testing the degree of purity

  • Limit tests represent qualitative examination used to identify and control the impurities present in substances. The students successfully tested the degree of purity of pharmaceutical-chemical substances. That is very important since the purity of the medicinal substance contributes to the safety, efficiency, or quality of the final product as a therapeutic agent.

5 Thin layer chromatography

  • In the analysis of pharmaceuticals, sensitive methods must be applied to ensure appropriate selectivity. Most often, chromatographic methods are used for separation, identification and quantitative analysis of multicomponent pharmaceutical forms, as well as for testing the degree of purity.

Monographs Ph. Eur. for the identification prescribe economically justified and simpler thin layer chromatography method (TLC).